Using Ramda with React and Redux: A Functional Deep Dive - Part 2

March 02, 2019

In Part One, we saw some of the benefits we get from strictly adhering to basic functional principles in our frontend React and Redux application. However, as with all engineering decisions, this comes with its own set of tradeoffs we’ll have to consider.

These tradeoffs include:

  • Lack of good static typings
  • Difficult developer ramp-up
  • Long term enforcement

Lack of good static typing

Ramda has type definitions for both typescript and flow but, to be honest, they are not very good. While many of the functions have decent types, using these types will often cause a type error when you are doing something perfectly valid, due to currying and the transformation-focused nature of many of the functions in Ramda.

This leaves you with two options - either limit yourself with less expressive potential and deal with the subpar typings, or throwaway the types altogether and accept that many of your functions are going to be untyped. Either way, you end up in a suboptimal world compared to the usual imperative procedural route.

That being said, there are ways to mitigate this. Given you went with the fully untyped route, you can still manually type your functions at sensible boundaries:

// @flow
type myObj = { foo: number, baz: boolean };
const allBazTrue: (myObj[]) => boolean = R.pipe(
  R.pluck('baz'), // untyped
  R.reduce(R.and, true), // untyped

allBazTrue([{ foo: 1, baz: true }]); // typed

However, this requires a fair amount of diligence, since neither flow nor typescript will complain to you if you don’t manually do this. In addition, this still leaves room for bugs between the functions in your pipe. Your static type system of choice will not check that the output of your first function matches with the expected input of your second.

If you are using a static typing system, this is probably the biggest cost you will have to weigh.

Difficult developer ramp-up

Let’s face it, object-oriented programming is still the defacto industry standard. As a result, most other developers will likely be unfamiliar with concepts like currying, functional composition, immutability, etc. They will think point-free style is difficult and hard to read. They will want to go back to using objects, mutation, and for-loops.

You’re going to have to help them ramp up initially. Remind them that just because something isn’t familiar, doesn’t necessarily mean it’s difficult or complicated. Reject a few pull requests and explain some of these concepts. Link them to this article.

Eventually, they will get comfortable with the paradigms and become productive once again. This will take longer than if they were starting in the average React and Redux codebase.

Long-term enforcement

Long-term enforcement involves keeping the paradigms and patterns you went to great lengths to establish early in the project present and enforced as the project scales and matures.

New developers are going to come in and want to do things their way. Tech debt will start to accrue and force even the best pipelines to be torn apart and reworked. There will be that itch to go back to working with objects, to put a little bit of logic in the component because, hey, our sprint ends tomorrow and we have to get this done.

Make no mistake, functional paradigms are not a panacea for all the woes of maintaining a frontend codebase. Nevertheless, they do help manage and mitigate said woes. So you will have to make some effort to remind people of this without constantly keeping your eye on every corner of the codebase.

Lint rules go a long way here - I especially like Eslint’s FP plugin that prevents creation of classes, this, and many other things you’ll want to enforce.

But at the end of the day, the best argument is results. People will go back and refactor a big selector and, much to their surprise, find that it was easier than they thought because the functions weren’t tangled together. Have them make a change in one file and, before pushing, they will notice their change broke something because of a failed unit test. When doing a page redesign and they will only have to change styles rather than pull apart a ton of shouldComponentUpdate logic in the process.

These scenarios should serve as your strongest piece of evidence when encouraging others to keep pursuing functional paradigms.


Due to their already functional nature, React and Redux produce myriad synergies when combined with a few basic functional programming principles. As we have seen, these synergies, while letting you write more terse and maintainable code, do come with their own set of tradeoffs.

If you’re in a smaller team, working with people already familiar with functional programming on primarily untyped JS, then I would highly recommend you consider this route when starting your next frontend project. Otherwise, perhaps you can use some or all of these techniques to augment your existing projects. Either way, it’s something new and exciting to consider.